It is well understood that a myriad of complex steps occur between the time of ejaculation and the union of the haploid number of chromosomes from each partner that results in the final process of fertilization. Consequently, it is easy to imagine the numerous potential problems that can occur at each step, and thus may prevent a successful pregnancy. Often overlooked are the complexities of sperm transport and the steps that must occur in the sperm, a process known as capacitation, before fertilization can occur. These processes of sperm delivery and potentiation are addressed in detail in this chapter. The complex process of sperm transport through the female reproductive tract begins at the time of ejaculation.
How to Check Your Cervical Mucus
Sperm transport in the female reproductive tract | Human Reproduction Update | Oxford Academic
Fabiana Y. Nakano I. Sandro C. Esteves I. Unexplained infertility diagnosis is made in the presence of a normal semen analysis when tubal patency and normal ovulatory function are established. Among several potential causes, unexplained infertility could be attributed to vaginal pH and cervical mucus abnormalities.
Suarez, A. At coitus, human sperm are deposited into the anterior vagina, where, to avoid vaginal acid and immune responses, they quickly contact cervical mucus and enter the cervix. Cervical mucus filters out sperm with poor morphology and motility and as such only a minority of ejaculated sperm actually enter the cervix.
A series of modified Kremer tests of human sperm penetration into human cervical mucus was carried out as part of the routine investigation of couples presenting with infertility. The outcome of these tests was significantly correlated with the concentration and progressive motility of the spermatozoa in the semen sample used for the test. Other semen characteristics significantly correlated with the test result were the mean velocity of progression VP and the amplitude of lateral head displacement about the axis of progression AH of the progressive spermatozoa.